The dry grasslands of Transylvania have some of the highest floristic diversity recorded anywhere in the world, and support substantial populations of rare vertebrate and invertebrate fauna. EFFECT will study a pilot scheme running 2015-19, led and implemented by the non-governmental organization (ADEPT Foundation), and financed by DG Environment and Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Thirty species or taxonomic groups have been selected and tested as biodiversity indicators of high nature value HNV meadows in the pilot scheme regions. Farmers are paid by results of measured species diversity on their farms, and have the freedom to choose management practice according to local conditions. Early indications suggest that farmers prefer the results-based to the traditional practice-based system. EFFECT will identify which characteristics of the pilot-scheme were essential for the uptake of the pilot scheme, continued support and applicability to other regions in Romania and beyond. We will analyse the 73 contracts and remuneration agreed under the pilot scheme, assessing success factors as well as challenges. Fundatia ADEPT is the practice partner in EFFECT for this case study.